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A History of Philosophy | 61 Whitehead’s Process Philosophy

Whiteheads Evolutionary Naturalistic Metaphysics: Bridging Idealism and Empiricism

  • Whitehead was an influential philosopher of science and process theology, born in 1859
  • He was influenced by Hegel’s evolutionary idealism, which he translated into a naturalistic metaphysics
  • Whitehead disagreed with F.H. Bradley’s idealism but otherwise took over his idea that empiricism is guilty of faulty abstractions such as the primary secondary quality distinction, substance quality distinction and space-time distinction
  • Bradley also spoke of varying degrees of reality in the world of appearances and Whitehead adopted this idea in his gradualism regarding the hierarchy of being.

Whiteheads Synthesis of Romanticism and Modern Science

  • Whitehead was influenced by Romanticism in the 19th century, particularly Wordsworth’s poetry
  • He also drew on modern science, especially symbolic logic, quantum physics and relativity theory to construct a naturalist view that held moral and aesthetic value in mundane facts. He believed there is no ultimate separation between fact and value and that philosophy has a two-fold function – to critique scientific abstractions, as well as engage in flights of speculative imagination using modern science to extrapolate metaphysical concepts
  • These flights must always return to concrete experience.

Exploring Whiteheads Understanding of Creativity and Ultimate Reality

  • Whitehead is a metaphysical naturalist, influenced by 19th century idealists and romanticists
  • Ultimate reality for Whitehead is creativity, a process of the emergence of novelty
  • God is the highest manifestation of this creativity
  • Whitehead looks at creative events humans can experience to describe his concept of creativity.

Whiteheads Three Modes of Perceptual Experience Explored

  • Whitehead argues that perceptual experience has three modes: perception in the mode of causal efficacy, perception in the mode of presentational immediacy, and perception in the mode of symbolic reference
  • He distinguishes between John Locke’s theory of perception which gives primacy to ideas, and his own belief that there is a direct knowledge of the cause affecting us
  • He believes that our knowledge of reality is always indirect, and must be logically inferred
  • He also claims that from a phenomenological standpoint the initial thing we are conscious of is causal efficacy
  • Finally, perceptual experience is Whitehead’s paradigm event because it involves factors such as objective data, eternal possibilities, and decisions.

Exploring Gods Role in Every Event: The Intersection of Objective Givens and Eternal Possibilities

  • Events consist of objective causal givens, eternal possibilities and decisions
  • Whitehead defines God as the logos, or the order, rather than a creator
  • Every event has a source of eternal possibilities and an individual perception based on decisions made in the process
  • An example of decision is seen in weather patterns, where the confluence of events determined one possibility over another
  • Objective data affects the range of possibilities in any given event.

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awell in any case we are going to befocusing this week on whitehead processphilosophy and process theology becauseof the to process philosophers thatstuff discusses in the same chapter aburg son and whitehead I chosen to focuson Whitehead simply because of his verypowerful influence in the development ofprocess theology and we'll see thebeginnings of it in Whitehead and lateron I'll make some comments about furtheraspects of it but Whitehead is withoutdoubt of these two the most influentialin the second half of the 20th centuryyou haven't started reading Whitehead Isuppose that means you haven't startedreading even stuffs chapter in which heintroduces Whitehead okay he started asa mathematician at Cambridge he laterbecame a philosopher of science atuniversity of london and at the age of63 when he was thinking of retirement hebecame a professor of philosophy atHarvard for I think it was about 15years and when he finally retired hekept on living there in the shadow ofHarvard Yard and open house to studentsand faculty and so conversations withWhitehead from that point on wererecorded until he died I think at theage 88 he was born in 1859it was let me start by saying somethingabout influences that shade is thinkingand the first is Hegel's philosophy whenI called Hegel's evolutionary idealismyou figure the idealism in Hegel orrightevolutionary yes because of his emphasison a historical developed a a number ofthe 19th century idealists andtheir successes that we were talkingabout the week before break can bethought of as evolutionary idealists yesthey they buy into the theory ofevolutionnatural selection if you like or variousother forms of the theory of evolutionbut they're not philosophical naturalists-- metaphysical naturalist s-- they'reidealists so that evolutionary theory iscompatible with naturalism compatiblewith ideal as according to these peopleand their point is that while theunderlying reality is of the nature ofspirit absolute spirit and the case ofHegel there are various degrees to whichthat immaterial free creative spirit isbeing fully manifested in the phenomenaof nature and human existence and humanhistory so that the evolutionary processbiological evolution cultural evolutionthe overall evolutionary process isunderstood in terms of the dialecticalunfoldingof the absolute you see to a point wherethat freedom of spirit becomesself-conscious rather than just implicitbut unconscious so the self consciousexpression of free creative spirit inculture is the zenith to which theevolutionary process moves now that kindof evolutionary thought was in anidealist context and so consciousness isthe keythe basic model what is this unfoldingself consciousness that's the keyand obviously unfolding selfconsciousness is not substance Hegeldoesn't think of spirit as an unchangingsubstance but as creative process it'snot substance but process and so youhave a change in the basic notion ofreality from the changelessness of somebasic stuff be it they'll ease water orwhatever or de cartesthinking thing whatever from theunchanging substance a to some sort ofdialectical process which has as inHegel its overall log our structure butno unchanging substance it's thestructure of the process that'sunchanging not the stuff that's changingmusic so that in Haegele translates inwhite into his notion of process andlike Hegel he does a phenomenology aphenomenology of the process that is tosay a phenomenology of consciousness adescriptive account of what the processis like of the structure of events whichmake up the process and the processesand not some kind of mechanistic thingas in 18th century science but the modelis more organic than mechanistic morelike a growth process than a machinelike and the ingredients are notatomistic in the sense of having noessential relationships to anything elsebut the ingredients are ratherrelationships then isolated apps so anentity is a relational unit rather thananything else well that's what you getin the evolutionary idealism and all ofthis translates in the Whitehead acceptthe idealismyou see Whitehead says he's going totranslate this over transfer it overinto a naturalistic metaphysic so he isgoing to be not an evolutionary idealistbut an evolutionary naturalist at leastthat's what he declares whether towardsthe end of his life when the god conceptbegins to figure larger and his thoughtwhether that changes is another questionbut at least his intent in developingthe metaphysics was an evolutionarynaturalism actually the AG alien thinkerwho most influenced him was F H Bradleyand those of you characters is skippedout on the last day of class willforever be impoverished because that'swhen we talked about F H Bradley whoWhitehead explicitly cites rather thanhe'll and in the Bradley material thatyou have in the Gardner anthology youwill notice that Bradley speaks ofappearances and qualities and thesubstance quality distinction and thatsort of thing as being sheer abstractionnot concrete reality by themselves andWhitehead agrees so that essentially thestuff you have from Bradley in theanthology about the world of appearancesbeing abstraction not concrete realityWhitehead would agree was the thing hedisagrees with in idealism the thing hedisagrees with his Bradley's idealismbut otherwise he to take it over Bradleymaintains thatempiricism of the classic sort that camefrom John Locke empiricism is guilty ofall sorts of faulty abstractions theprimary secondary quality distinctionwell even Bradley showed that was anabstraction not true even of actualexperience the substance qualitydistinction well I think Berkeley showedthat was an abstraction because how doyou know what substance the RZA viewedonly all you know all you know is thequalities for something I know not whatis an abstraction the space-timedistinction well certainly in terms ofmodern physics it becomes an abstractionrepresentational knowledge ideas thatrepresent something else abstraction yeshe as so all the way through he he seesthe the abstraction that there is andwhen Bradley talks of there beingdegrees of reality in the world ofappearances varying degrees of realityin the world of appearances that'sprecisely the language that Whiteheadlikes using varying degrees ofappearance and we'll pick up on thatwhen we get down here and see hisgradualismthere are various degrees to which whatis the basic nature of things it isexplicit in the hierarchy of being nowin that evolutionary idealism of the19th century however there is one othernote which isn't as perhaps explicit inHegel although we've mentioned it weoften tend to single it out and that isthe romanticism of the 19th centuryI'm not sure that Whitehead got this somuch from Hegel as he did from words washis daughterwrote that there was a time in his lifewhen he read Wordsworth as if it werethe Bible read Wordsworth as if it werethe Bible she became the wife of I thinkit was an Episcopalian clergyman sopresumably she knew where all she spokeyesbut the Wordsworth themes run all theway through it you'll pick him up in achapter called the romantic reaction inscience in the modern world in whichthere is as much poetry as philosophyincluding Wordsworth's poetry yesbecause he's seeing the philosophicalcontent of the romanticists reactionagainst yeah the mechanistic science andthe rationalism of the Enlightenmentmusic and all right that's part ofnineteenth-century idealism but we'rewhitehead gets it from becomes prettyexplicit and I found verbal identitiesbetween whiteheads poems and some of thelanguage in dirty white hits poems wordswords poems at some of the language inwhiteheads process and reality which ishis long technical tome on metaphysicsis it it's fascinating stuff so if youwant to read Whitehead extensively Isuggest you read Wordsworth poems at thesame time it's very interestingall right that's the first influence ahthe second influence from modern scienceafter all he was first a mathematicianand a scientist he cooperated withBertrand Russell in I think it was 1903in a work which really introducedsymbolic logic into the 20th century awork called the tractate the BertrandRussell and no nots not the track Titosays what led me about the principiamathematica the principia mathematica Ihave a prompter over here you'll see tohelp methe principia mathematica principles ofmathematics in which Russell andWhitehead both of whom were teaching atCambridge at the time cooperated on thevolume essentially showing thatmathematics is reducible to formal logicand therefore introducing mathematicalsymbolism into formal logic so as toeliminate the ambiguity of variables andmake possum make possible they formalizedeductive systems that logicians like sohe will he was first a mathematician wholike other mathematicians of the timewas very interested in logic andtherefore in philosophy of science andduring his stay at the University ofLondon where he was teaching philosophyof science he published three works intheoretical physics well at least we'retheoretical physics boarders in thephilosophy of scienceso all right he he was very much intothis what in modern science influencesphilosophy one undoubtedly asdevelopmental biology both at the macrolevel evolutionary theory and at themicro levelgenetics developmental biologyhe doesn't say as much about it as hedoes about physics he was closer tophysics and you'll find that in sciencein the modern world he talks about thephilosophical significance of three andmodern developments in physicsfirst of all electromagnetic fieldtheory electromagnetic field Theorywhereby we think in terms of forcefields rather than in terms simply ofbodies with gravitational pull forcefields second quantum physics where thebasic unit ur if you like units ofenergy rather than solid pellets ofmanner quantum physics and thirdEinstein's relativity theory includingspace-time relativity general theory ofrelativity equals mc-squared relativitytheory the professor who taught theWhitehead course I taught in graduateschool said that there were only twopeople who really understood relativitytheory one was Einstein the other wasWhitehead now whether there's been anyimprovement on that in the last 200years or whatever it was I I don't knowbut at least he seems to you're awakeokay but at least he seems to understandrelative tippity theory and he weaves itinto his metaphysics remarkably nownotice what's happening here he isa naturalist rather than an idealisthere he's interested in modern physicshe's going therefore as a naturalistinterested in modern science going to bea scientific realist taking sciencestelling us in a provisional way aboutreality the idealist had a phenomenal ifyou of science Whitehead has a realistview of science yet both of them seem tohave the same aims purposes namelypreserving a romanticized view of lifenature and as we will see laterinsisting that there is no ultimateseparation between fact and value theworld of nature is value-laden now theidealist wanted to say that andtherefore rejected the scientificaccount of realitywhy did wants to say that but he acceptsthe scientific account of reality howcome well because of the change inmodern science he maintains thatdevelopmental biology an energeticphysics relativity theory enable us tosay that the physical facts of mundaneexistence are loaded with value meaningPervis he's coming back to ateleological interpretation of thescientific illness yesso here is going to be a philosophicalnaturalist who's going to find moral andaesthetic value inherent in thingsyeah he talks a lot about science in hiswritings he takes it that philosophy hasa two-fold function with regards toscience one is to critique scientificabstractions there's that wordabstraction again the abstractions whichtake some theoretical notion likeequality for being ultimate reality andthe statements abstractionto critique those abstractions as partof the function of philosophy and hecritiques mechanistic science and youwill find that's the major function ofthe first six chapters of the bookyou're reading but then the secondfunction is to engage in what he callsflights of speculative imagination basedon modern science in other words toextrapolate from science into aspeculative metaphysical scheme and helikens those flights of speculativeimagination to what plane travel waslike in the 1920s if you're going tomention that namely your soar aloftabove the crowd the clouds the crowds -but the clouds in this heady sort ofworld of speculative imagination upabove the clouds and periodically to getyour bearings in the world effect you'lldrop down below the clouds and findwhere you are you think I suppose todayif he were right here you'd say radarchecks something an accent but in otherwords flights of philosophicalspeculation metaphysical speculationyeah but always taking off from andreturning to the facts of science andordinary experience concrete experiencebecause he's realistic about thoseso if you like he has two sorts of aempirical points of reference scienceconcrete experience not the abstractionsof an empiricist like Locke but the sortof experience that we canphenomenologically describeintrospectivelyself-consciousness is the window ofreality self-conscious introspection soyou'll find that in the light of that heis always denouncing certain phallusesthe fallacy of misplaced concretenessoopsoh I'm can't even spell alright thefallacy of misplaced concreteness andthe fallacy of simple locationwell if concrete is the opposite ofabstract you can tell what the fallacyof misplace concreteness is assigningconcreteness to sheer abstraction so thefallacy of misplaced concreteness is thefallacy of taking abstractions to bereal assuming that what a reallyintellectual abstractions theoreticalabstractions of concrete existence notso the fallacy of misplaced completenessand he's always accusing mechanisticscience of that then the other is thefallacy of simple occasion of assumingthat there are fixed points in a uniformspace uniform time of a Newtonian sortsimple location so all you have to do isto call out the coordinates you canlocate the thing failing to see thatmotion is in both place end time and thespatial coordinates change varying atthe time relative a spatial relationshipto time and consequently the notion of asimple location such as we use ingeography just is an abstraction thatmay be useful at some levels but quiteuseless and othersso accordingly with the influence ofmodern science now the third one maysurprise youthe Alexandrian church fathers and youmight say what is a philosophicalnaturalist doing trafficking with theAlexandrian church fathers and he'strying in fact to buy their Lagosdoctrine that's what he's doing shoppingthere he wants to buy the largestdoctrinehe's very much impressed by Platonismparticularly the middle Platonism not somuch just play oh but the middlePlatonism which developed the Lagosconcept in talking about the orderedstructure of nature now in order to getthe point of this you have to back up alittle bit to begin with just as a hog alien would want to say that all ofsubsequent philosophy as a series offootnotes to Hegel why did in one placeis that the whole history of philosophyis a series of footnotes to Platoand you begin to see that the thing heappreciates about Hale is Hegel ispleased the the view of than theprocesses of nature being basically ofthe nature of spirit created but with alow cost structure to those processes adialectical log-off's structure butthat's only one thing to help understandthis the other is that he grew up in aparsonagehis father was an Episcopalian clergymanof evangelical persuasion in thesoutheast English town of wrens gate 20miles from my home so that as a kid weused to write at bicycles over toRamsgate fairly often and I think I knowthe church so I've not been back tocheck on it where he was the Whiteheadthey grew up in this home when he wentoff to Cambridge as an undergraduate fora while he was leading theology avidlyand then decided that wasn't for him hecouldn't buy it sold all his theologybooks turned his attention tomathematicsalong with Bertrand Russell so that theywere undergraduates together laterhowever in one of his later works thatwas published in the 1930s a work calledAdventures of ideas it's very plain thathe has a new interesting theology andparticularly in origin and the ChristianPlatonists of Alexandriaorigin clément that tradition the middlePlatonism there and what what appeals tohim is the Lagos conception and the ideathat in the emanations a from God of thegood and you remember they weren't clearabout ex nihilo creation in theimitations from God the good that lowcost structure transfers to every finitemanifestation as in the Stokes for whomthere was the logos Parramatta costs theSeminole logic in Lagos in everyparticular and it's that way ofaccounting for the ordered nests ofnature the goodness of nature God saidit was good the theme of Platonism isthat being is good not necessarilybecoming the being is good yesand it's this which seems to appealparticularly as a way for finding abasis for value in a world effect thelog-off structure okay so those threeinfluences let me pause there and getyour feedback questions clarificationdoes you does that get you back in tuneafter Spring Break tuned in okay clearenough on those three all right there weareall right then our next task is to askourselves what is this metaphysicalscheme that he develops in flights ofspeculative imagination on the basis ofconcrete experience and the basis ofmodern science well since we've saidthat he's a naturalist rather than anidealist but he's profoundly influencedby those 19th century idealists andparticularly the romanticists themes howis he going to describe what is ultimatehe doesn't say the ultimate reality isif the ultimate reality is one realityand there are many others as well yousee that would be a theists language theultimate reality is God there all sortsof other lesser realities let's not waithex language the ultimate reality forWhitehead is something that pulsesthrough everything and the the ultimatereality for him is some wouldn't youknow it creativity you see that's not athing to probably you're right it's nota thing his is not a substancemetaphysic to have the ultimate as athing yes hecreativity a property no not exactlyit's a process it's the process of theemergence of novelty and that's what'sultimate in all of Alti creativity notnow be careful there's some creativityeven when he develops his conception ofGod much more fully than at thebeginning this creativity is not Godit's not God well to one who's readBradley that's no surprise because forBradley the absolute is not God eitherGod is simply the highest manifestationof the absolute and for Whitehead God issimply the highest manifestation ofcreativitynow immediately you begin to see whywhiteheads God is attractive to peoplein our Christian tradition you think ifGod is the highest manifestation ofcreativity well it sounds like he couldbe seen as creator but all rightthe ultimate now how are you going todescribe the process of creativitywell obviously the thing to do is tostart with describing some creativeevent rather than the describingcreativity in total and just as forthese idealists what they're doing islooking through the lens ofself-consciousness of the larger screensthe reality so why did then it tries tolook at some creative event that we knowby immediate experience and respectivelyso that the the simplest thing withwhich to start and seems to be theparadigm case for him all the way alongis the experience of sense perceptionthe experience of sense perception nownotice that's precisely where Hegelbegins his phenomenology of mind youthinksubjective spirit sensation andperceptionand in as much as he is describing thefearsome experience of sins perceptionintrospectively what he's going to giveus is a phenomenological description ofsense perception phenomenological methodlike in Hegel phenomenological method sowhat does he do then in describing senseperception well he distinguishes in theperceptual experience three modesperception in the mode of okaythe first is perception in the mode ofcausal efficacy the second is perceptionin the mode of presentational immediacythe third is perception in the mode ofsymbolic referencenow as he develops this as he does in anumber of places as he develops thisit's always in contrast to John Locke'stheory of perception now as John Lockedescribes sense perception what comesfirst causal efficacy or ideas in thephenomenology of it in the consciousnessof it what comes first ideas that's thebeginning place in the consciousness ofit its ideas and for Whitehead that'sutterly mistake and it's false he callsit a fallacy of the primacy ofpresentational immediacyhe loves labeling things phalluses seemto be in vogue in the 1910s and twentiesthe fallacy of giving primacy topresentational immediacy you can tellwhat presentational immediacy is the thethe idea that's immediately presented tothe consciousness the cognitive thepresentational immediacy is thecognitive context the ideawhereas causal advocacy obviously ifwe're conscious of that it's effectiverather than cognitive consciousness andthe awareness of that is less vivid insense perception I mean in visualperception than it is for instance inauditory things where there's a loudnoise and then you decipher what it islater or in the sense of touch where therecognition comes more slowly yes buthis point is that if we consider theperceiver to be the entire psychosomaticunity the entire human organism thenfrom a phenomenological standpoint interms of consciousness of the initialthing is the causal efficacy there issome effectCourtley that is that musicand mislead with a clarity's ofsense-perception lock talk otherwise buteven in visual perception if the lightis sufficiently bright its felt firstyes the dazzling light so the privacy inthe mode of causal efficacy now noticewhat that does you see in John Locke theidea came first then the question whatcaused it and you have to have acause-effect argument of a purelyintellectual sort from what from theidea which is thought not felt thatthought to what caused us to think theidea is it that is to say the the ideasof representationhopefully it's a copy and what it is outthere that causes it we don't know wehave to infer is there a cause we don'tknow for surewhereas and this therefore means thatour knowledge of reality is always someindirect it has to be logically inferredbut for Whitehead if the causal efficacyis for is the thing causal efficacy yousee in that experience of causalefficacy there is a direct knowledge ofthe cause affecting melike if Ryan were to stand up and I wereto sock him on the jaw he would everdirect awareness of the calls affectinghimso what we have then is some on thisbasis what we have is on this basis adirect knowledge of the existence of areal object that's how he can be arealist is he contrary to David Humethat we only know constant conjunctionshe's arguing we do experience causalconnections Hume is wrong Hume stumbledover the pea fallacy of the primacy ofpresentational immediacy if they with abig label like that you think he couldhave caught it but no he was so lockedinto the Lockean mode of thought thisawareness of causal efficacy has nothingto do with constant conjunctions howmany times does Ryan have to be hit onthe chin before he's aware he has a onepretty shortly we'll do it yes it theimmediacy of presentational immediacythen follows yeah an idea comes to mindnow there's no guarantee that the ideais correct you know the way it is in themorning you are awakened by a bellringing of you grab the alarm clock andsay hello you've got the wrong idea butyou've got an ideaNo so the presentational immediacyprovides you with a hypothetical idea noguarantees and what you do is to takethat idea and refer it to the cause ofthe stimulus notice the idea is not arepresentation a copy it's a symbolwhere did you get that language straightfrom Bradley yes he Bradley in hiscriticism of traditional empiricism saidideas are not copies representationsthere are symbols that we use inthinking about things so we take theidea and using it using it as use it asa symbol in referring to so we have anindirect knowledge of the essence of anobject the essence is what it is theexistence is that it isso you had a direct awareness thatsomething is an indirect awareness ofwhatnow notice what's involved somethingelse that's involved in this threefoldbusiness what is it in these three whichis the cause of the perceptualexperience what are the causes what arethe factors that create this experienceof perception well first there areobjective data objective Givens thataffect the present state ofconsciousnessso if you like my daydreaming isdisturbed by these causal Givens causalstimuli objective data that causallyeffect second as the ideas develop theseare what he calls eternal possibilitieswhat is this it's the phone ringing atthis hour in the night yes a it's apossibilityURR if the alarm clock but the ideas aresimply possibilities that come to mindyou think and the world is teeming withall sorts of possibilities objectivelogical possibilities that you think ofand then there is a third factor thatmakes the perceptual experience completedecisionso you say hello and realize that youwere wrong in your decision but thedecision you see is selecting from theeternal possibility is the whole rangeof possibilities proposed by thestimulus you select from that and go init and it may turn out to be that thesymbol you use in referring to the thingis one which works maybe it doesn't butwith experience you begin to know whatof the symbol you want what will worknow I said that perceptual experience ishis paradigm event the event of aperceptual experienceand his point is that in everyexperience in every event in the entirecosmic process there is first causalefficacy real causal process there issecondly the entertaining of possiblebeing there they're presented aspossibilities to the mind ideas I've gotan ideawhat's an idea to possibility what'sthis that's happening well I've got anideapossibility and there is the decisionwhereby in the process the lot is castthen you go with one possibilitynow you could diagram that then in amore general way in diagram it like thishere is the process to this point okayat this point there is some causalintrusion okaywhereupon all sorts of eternalpossibilities converge that would besuggested by such a causal intrusion sothat from a range of an indefinitenumber of possibilities there are somewhich are relevant in this particularinstance and from these decision is madeyou see with these possibilities youcould go in that direction possibilitiesone two three you could go in thatdirection you could go in that directionyou could go in that directioncorresponding to the various eternalpossibilities and choosing number twofull steam ahead that direction so thereare always three constituent elements inevery vent in the conv cosmic processobjective causal Givens inherentpossibilities yesnatural process is loaded withpossibilities for good for bad valuelaterso you've got the objective causal givenyou've got the eternal possibilities andthird you've got decision now if you cangrasp that whiteheads easy you see whitewhiteheads basic question is what's thesource of these eternal possibilitiesand because I've already queued you inthat he's looking for a logoff startHren what's the sourceGod the logos who is not a creator inany sense of XD hello God isn't a causalforce well God is just the order ER theProvidence the logossee that's why he's not a theist no adear Steven creates so he's not a theisthe's not a deist is he a pantheist nobecause there are other events than thesupreme event which is God well what ishe it's white hit is he doesn't fit intoclassificationsyeah let me pause there do you see whathe's doingyou'll find that these three elementsyes a figure large in his wholemetaphysical scheme the objective dataare simply other events other space-timeevents in which causally affect thepresent status of this stream yes a sothere's an intersection of two cores andstrings these eternal possibilities hecalls eternal objects not objects in thesense of substance well in the sense ofobjects of thought ideas ideas they'reobjects of thought thought objectsnothing these are eternal objects eventshe sometimes calls actual entitiesso is metaphysic is a metaphysic ofactual entities comprising a spacetimeprocess with eternal objects whichlogical possibilities for of what couldbe and decisions which account for theindividuals the individuality of thingswhat makes this an individual perceptiona particular perception see what makesyour life your individual lunch youthink well in that stream there is adecision a decision a decision adecisiona decision which in every case bringswhat he calls satisfaction notnecessarily motive satisfaction but inthe sense that the the causal stimulusis assimilated in some way into the selfso it becomes an ingredient in theongoing individuality so the processinvolves individual things causallyrelated to other individual things yesif you like individual sub processescausally related to other individual subprocesses out of which there is room forall sorts of possibilities creativepossibilities if they only some of whichare actualized and those summeractualize by virtue of the decisions byvirtue of which they they're thedirection to go in the individualprocess now this some kind of event thenis the paradigm and that's where we canunderstand gradualism because while inperception it's a conscious thing andyou have consciousness of all three ofthose things at other degrees of realityit may not be conscious so that there isa low-grade analog to decision which isnot conscious in which is nobodydeciding but it's the cut off point inwhich in the confluence of events acertain possibility is be sureexample in that beautiful weather we'vehad the week before last my daffodils nomy tulips big button my tulips bulbs inrows up the flowerbed in the backyardwe're getting to be that high literallyand my mind was filled withpossibilities for a blaze of color in afew weeks earlier than ever before inthe season though there are otherpossibilities of course that came to mymind but for the process of thedevelopment of my tulips there were allsorts of possibilities but then came themoment of decision that cold snap lastweek which froze my tulips so that as ofnow they are limp dead sagging to theground okaythere was a possibility all alarm andthe decisive moment was that deep frostdown to ten degrees one night exit myspring tulipsnow you've got all the same there youhave the given process in which thereall sorts of objective data that affectthem nothing and depending on theobjective data which affect them wholeranges of possibilities now it's muchmore deterministic with tulips than itis with the conscious decisions at youand I make he's not saying that decisionis free on the part of the tulips Berryis saying that a week before it wasindeterminate and was the confluence ofeventsso in every event you have that it's thenature of the process hey we wentovertime I'm sorry okay we'll pick up onthis next time