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Artificial intelligence and algorithms: pros and cons | DW Documentary (AI documentary)

The Revolution of Artificial Intelligence: Silicon Valley at the Forefront of AI Research

  • Artificial intelligence is rapidly advancing and has potential to revolutionize daily life
  • Its applications range from medical diagnosis to autonomous cars
  • It has the potential to change human lives, but it also raises questions about privacy, surveillance and job security
  • Silicon Valley is a hub for AI research, where experiments such as Amazon Go and robot cafés are underway
  • Stanford University is at forefront of AI research with an algorithm that can accurately diagnose diseases from X-rays
  • AI can be modeled on the human brain, which learns by being “trained” with large datasets.

AI and Parkinsons Disease Detection: Aston University Leads the Way in Birmingham, England

  • In Birmingham, England, a mathematician at Aston University developed an algorithm to detect differences in vocal patterns between people with and without Parkinson’s Disease
  • This was able to correctly identify the disease nearly 99% of the time
  • AI is also being used to analyze motion data gathered by sensors in smartphones
  • If measured properly, this data could detect precursor symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease and enable early intervention
  • China is heavily investing in AI technology, particularly in restaurants where they are testing what works and which aspects can be implemented in other restaurants of the chain
  • There appears to be a trade-off between security provided by AI and privacy concerns.

The Contrasting Worlds of China and Silicon Valley: Surveillance and Political Influence in the Digital Age

  • China has a rich history of high civilization, but also has surveillance cameras everywhere
  • The Long Gan district in Shenzhen has a Smart City control center that collects data and evaluates it using artificial intelligence
  • Surveillance system scans the entire city, offenders are identified and their social credit score drops
  • Silicon Valley is the hub of innovation and freedom, yet companies like Google have immense power over our daily lives and political influence
  • Google lobbies extensively in Brussels, despite being impervious to the public.

Exploring the Ethical Implications of Self-Driving Cars

  • AI is increasingly powering innovation, especially in the field of self-driving cars
  • The technology required to build an autonomous vehicle is complex, with computers able to localize and map well but lacking the ability to accurately predict people’s behavior
  • Advertisers are taking advantage of AI while ethical questions arise surrounding the programming of these cars and their decision-making
  • MIT’s Media Lab are exploring how a moral compass should guide these decisions in order to create safer roads
  • The time scale for machines allows for faster reactions than humans and potentially better judgement.

Exploring the Ethical Implications of AI-Driven Driverless Cars

  • AI and driverless cars have immense potential to benefit daily life, medicine, or mobility
  • However, ethical questions remain about how choices should be made and prioritized
  • Survey respondents from all over the world agree on saving more lives, saving children and those crossing legally
  • Cultural differences influence moral judgement e.g. French favor sparing women and strong focus on children while German prefer inaction
  • AI algorithms cannot answer what aim progress should serve – a question only humankind can answer.

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artificial intelligence is making rapidstridesthere's talk of a new evolution thatcould fundamentally changelife on our planet artificialintelligence has the potential torevolutionize every aspect of daily lifework mobility medicine the economy andcommunicationbut will ai really make medicine betterand doctors superfluouswhen will self-driving cars hit ourroadswill intelligent robots usurp our jobsand are we heading for a dystopiawith no privacy and total surveillancewhat exactly is artificial intelligenceand how much can it really dowhat will change and what will remainpure fantasyto answer these questions we embarked onan exciting journeyto meet the scientists working on ourfuture in the usbritain germany and china[Music]our first stop silicon valley incaliforniaapple google and facebook all have theirheadquarters hereit's the epicenter of the digitalrevolutionthe tech industry has changed the faceof the san francisco bay areanew startup companies launch every dayrents have exploded and artificialintelligence is the buzzworda new type of supermarket recentlyopened its doors hereamazon go all you need here is an apphold your mobile phone to the scannerand you're in[Music]as leonardo shows me amazon's new menusand explains that the language assistantalexa can help with the preparation athomei'm under constant surveillancewhich shelf do i stop atwhich products am i interested inon the ceiling sensors and camerasintelligent image recognition capturesmy every movewhat do i take off the shelf what do iput back and what do i take with methis branch is still in its test phasebut amazon plans to open 50 such grocerystores this year alonethe end of the sales assistant just walkoutno more standing in line no cashiersi feel a bit like a shoplifter as ileavecomfort at the cost of privacymy receiptone block away a robot cafeanother test lab for the futureorder by app and touch screenthe increasingly ubiquitous tools oftrademy first ever cup of coffee served by arobotso this is the taste of the futureai will change our shopping experiencebut what will happen to employeesstanford university is at the forefrontof global ai research with an annualbudget of 6.5 billion dollars[Music]i want to know how will artificialintelligencechange medicineresearchers here have developed anartificial intelligence algorithm thatcan screenx-rays for certain diseases computerscientist pranav rajpurkar shows me howeasy it is to usetake a picture of an x-ray with yourmobile phone upload the imageand a few seconds later you get thediagnosisit's a mass and it's saying this thingover hereis a possibly cancerous lesion and i cansee that right over hereokay so it gives you if i may have alook at itnow probabilities for pneumoniainaudible edema effusion and that goesbankyeah now how does this work i mean howdid you get to the pointwe started with a large data set ofchest x-rayswhich were released by the nih and thesecontainedx-rays and then also labels of differentpathologiesand whether they existed in those x-raysso it might say okay here's an image andon this image i havepathology one two and three and we hadhundred thousand of these images[Music]so we trained a model that cantake in it as an input and x-ray andthen output the probability ofseveral different pathologies on thisx-rayartificial intelligence is modeled onthe human braina gigantic network of almost 100 billioninterconnected neuronsput in very simple terms this is how abrain cell worksincoming impulses are passed in a dominoeffect from one neuronto the next the resulting circuitconnects the neurons and it is thiscircuit that artificial intelligencetries to simulateas a digital neural networklike our brains the network can learnhow to identify tuberculosis forinstancefirst the network needs to be trained ortaughtx-rays of tuberculosis patients are fedto the systeminitially it struggles to correctlyidentify the conditionbut every time an x-ray is fed in thenetwork's structure is adaptedand its diagnostic ability improvesit takes thousands and thousands ofclinical data sets to train the machineonly after the network is optimized inthis waycan it correctly identify an unknownx-ray[Music]but how accurate is artificialintelligence compared to a doctor'sexpertisewe have actually done this test twice atthis pointonce with a set of studies from thenih data set that we had a group ofradiologists labeland then we compared the accuracy of themodel to the radiologistand we found that they were very similarin terms of accuracy on most pathologieson one of them the model wasoutperforming the radiologists and onthree of themthe radiologists were outperforming themodel and then we repeated theexperiment this time using a data setfrom stanfordwhich we recently released which is 200thousand chest x-raysand then we had a similar setup where wehadthree sub-specialty radiologists theseare very uncommon very trainedradiologists to decide what the groundtruth for a particular set of images wasand then we compared generalradiologists to the algorithm at thetask and found that they had similarlevels of performanceso these are all stanford radiologistsso so they'rethey're trained they should be good yeah[Music]reading x-rays accurately is acomplicated processbut artificial intelligence is makingfast progresswhen it comes to identifying orrecognizing simple imagescomputers have surpassed human accuracynow if i look at your picture it'salways probabilityso there are cases where the machine isnotreally sure what what would be sort of aclear decision to say okay thisis i don't know pneumonia or somethingelse yeahi think i mean i think it's good to talkin terms of probabilitiesbecause probabilities also give a senseofthe algorithm the model's uncertainty onthat particular problemi think one difficulty withprobabilities is that it doesmake it hard for humans to interpretlike what is the probability of 88versus 92 percent mean in terms of thedecision i should make in the clinicand so i think in that sense one of thethings thatwe could experiment with doing in thefuture is rather than showingprobabilities that are sofine-grained maybe we can show thingslike unlikelyor this pathology is likely or thispathology ispossible in healthcareartificial intelligence is powering arevolutionscientists are using artificialintelligence algorithms to sift throughseemingly banal datasuch as the up and down motion of thesteps we take every daythey're looking for conspicuous patternsthat could serve as early warning signsof diseasescientists in the english city ofbirmingham are working on arevolutionary diagnostic methodto date there are no specific tests todetect parkinson's diseasemaking diagnosis difficult ai couldchange thatmax little is a mathematician at astonuniversity[Music]very good voice changes can be an earlyindicator of parkinson'smax and his team collected thousands ofvocal recordingsand fed them to an algorithm theydeveloped which learned to detectdifferences in voice patterns betweenpeople withand without the condition in a lab-basedstudy of the recordings the algorithmwas able to correctly identify aparkinson's diagnosisnearly 99 of the time maxlittle's work is an example of thefar-reaching changes aiis bringing to the field of medicineit's no longer just doctors who areusing artificial intelligence to developnew diagnostic methods but datascientistsprogrammers and mathematicians like max[Music]one example when a person walks sensorsin their smartphone register the up anddown motion of their gate[Music]but what information can be gleaned fromsuch dataif we measured a pattern of someone'swalking behaviorthen someone who's healthy might have wemight measure the accelerometerto look like that okay so it's just thesort of movementhe would have here yeah the hips goingup and down regularly that kind of thingalong with their pacebut if you looked at somebody withparkinson's disease they may have thesesmall steps like this and they may beirregular or they may have patterns likethator they may even freeze and stop likethat so youyou can see that there's you knowthere's a difference there's adifferenceso you can also now train an algorithmfor instance to pick out features likewhat is thethe distance between the time distancebetween these uh thesepeaks and it could also do the same withthis and it would be able to do thatvery preciselyand by doing so we may be able tomeasure for instance that here thatthere's large variability in betweenthese um the advantage of the algorithmreally comes whenthe for instance you might have somebodywho who is saywho measures a pattern which looks likethisand there might just be one smallchange perhaps that that occursvery very um maybe not like that butsort ofyou know some uh more variation that'sright in thein the sequence of these um in thetiming of thesethese events um even to a professionaleyebecause they don't have the level ofprecision they may not be able todetect that this is outside of so thenormal rangeof um a variation but of course analgorithm connected to ahigh precision sensor um we'll you knowwe'll be able to determine thatdifference and in this casethis person here may in fact have um aprecursor symptom of the diseaseso this would mean that this personwith the help of an algorithm could bediagnosedas having parkinson whereas the doctorhimselfwould miss him out that could for thefirst timemake it possible to detect precursorsymptoms of parkinson'sand enable early interventionbut what else does the data on oursmartphones revealright now you have already appstracking your so-called activity yeahso in fact the datamight be already there well the datapotentially could be therethat's right but there are ethics aboutwhether we collect that kind of dataand use it for for these sorts ofpurposesyou know clearly we can't just collectthis data andstart diagnosing people which surewe should not no absolutely we could butwewe really wouldn't want to there arevery good reasons not to do itand uh there may be good reasons fordoing it as wellbut that's the kind of thing that needsthat needs to be worked through in auh in a proper you know regulatedsetting[Music]after our interview max little tells mehe's receivedseveral lucrative offers to join techgiants who smell new businessopportunitieshe turned them downartificial intelligence will undoubtedlyimprove doctors abilities to detectand diagnose diseasebut amid all the opportunities ai offersthere's an urgent need for regulationwe're on our way to china a country thathas experiencedbreathtaking change in recent years[Music]its capital beijing is buzzingthe whole country is hungry for progressand is on a fast track to the future[Music]time seems to move faster here by theyear 2030china aims to be the global leader inthe field of artificial intelligenceand there's a lot to indicate it willmeet that goal because the governmenthas bankrolled subsidy programs worthbillions of euros[Music]these robots aren't assembling carsthey're the big attraction in beijing'slatestsmart restaurantai in the kitchen and automated waitersi have a meeting here with the designresearcher geisha yosta former internet ambassador for thegerman government she's currentlyspending a research semester at tongjiuniversity in shanghai i asked her abouther impressions of china[Music]there's this real hunger in the city andit's super fun to talk to young peoplebecause they want to be the motors ofchangethey work day and night they have a newwork-life balance model it's called 996.i thought what do you mean 996. and theysaid we work from 9amto 9pm six days a weekthat's the better model now because theyused to just work non-stopbut no one's stopping no one's hittingthe brakes they work like crazy becausethey want to bring about changeas a this restaurant cost 20 milliondollarsjust the one restaurant they've investedthis huge sum to digitize the entireoperationthey aren't just robots serving the foodthe whole kitchen is digitizedrefrigeration is monitored supply chainsare monitoredthere are dashboards for everythingeverything is connected herewhere they're testing what works andwhich aspects can be implemented inother restaurants of this chainthat's the idea here to just try thingsand to think big[Music]think[Music]but what about privacythere seem to be a trade-off betweensecurity and privacyyou often hear how ai has increasedpublic safety for instance that theubiquitous surveillance cameras havedramatically increased the crime solvingrateit's hard for us to relate to becauseprivacy and personal rights are soimportant for germansbut here there's a different traditionand take on the issuei'm fascinated by china but it alsopuzzles mehow can they be reconciled the highcivilization of ancient chinaand the modern industrial state withsurveillance cameras everywhere[Music]the long gan district in shenzhenin the heart of china's booming economicregion north of hong kongwe visit the smart city control centera giant monitor displays the data of theentire district in real timenumbers of new residents by neighborhoodto plan schoolswater supply levels power outagesall this information is collectedcompiled and evaluatedusing artificial intelligence theshowcase projectwas developed with chinese tech gianthuaweichief engineer chen bangtai tells me thecity now operates more efficientlyso what you're doing here is urbanplanningyes the systems are a big helpthese are hospital bedsright now there are 15 000 doctors andnursesand 7 600 beds so is shenzhen currentlyhealthy or sick[Music]a smart surveillance system scans theentire cityillegal structures like this one on aroof are quickly identified anddemolishedto me some of this feels like thebackdrop to a science fiction movieemployees with live streaming body camsinspect side streetsthis is total surveillancechan shows me how cameras installed inrestaurant kitchenseven keep tabs on cleanliness butdoesn't the chefmind being monitored all the timechen says residents of long gangdistrict approvejaywalking is not allowed and offendersare immediately identifiedlook here you jaywalk once and rightaway your social credit score dropsthis degree of surveillance isunthinkable in the westbut here in china they take a differentview and say it's driven a drop in crimewhat does it say here male youth withoutglassesyouthyes suddenly you're a youth[Music]a transparent society in the interest ofefficiencysome of this appears useful but do wereally want to measurecontrol and analyze everything justbecauseit's technically possiblewon't that inevitably lead us down aroad to data dictatorshipmaybe trust is better than smart control[Music]silicon valley a synonym for innovationand unlimited freedomthe biggest players in the field of aiare based herebut their headquarters are hidden behindinconspicuous low-rise buildingsfacebook we use their services entrustthem with our databut the company is impervious to thepublica selfie at the entrance gate is justabout tolerated[Music]next door at apple the visitor center's3d model of the campus is as close asnon-employees can get to the newbuildingwhat's going on inside[Music]it's all confidential[Music]we want to visit google here incalifornia and requested an interviewweeks before our arrival but all we getare stalling tactics like these visitorsgoogle leaves us out in the coldapart from a small store this is theonly visitor highlightaccessible to the publicthese android lawn statues are even adesignated location on google maps[Applause]welcome to google google[Music]the european union handing google a 2.7billion dollaranti-trust finethese companies command growing powerover our daily livesand growing political influence googlespends more than 6 million euros a yearlobbying brussels alone the eu'stransparency registerlists more than 200 meetings with googlerepresentatives since 2014.google is the busiest lobbyist inbrussels[Music]we finally get our interview not incaliforniabut in munich germany with one of thelongest serving employeesjens redma how important is ai forgoogleai is so important to us that two yearsago we rebranded our entire researchdivision to google aiai drives a significant part of ourproduct developmentai above all drives a significant partof our efforts to improve the quality ofour productstake machine translation through the useof machine algorithmswe've seen faster progress over the lasttwo years than we did over the entireprevious decadesociety will undoubtedly be propelledforward by the implementation of theseservices and the use of ai in the yearsto comewhat's key is that it's done responsiblyunder the principles of transparencywe need to explain how things work whythey are needed where people's data goeshow they can control it how they candelete it if they want to delete itor forward it the user must have controlbut what about technologies like googlehome the smartmicrophone sitting in people's livingroomsgoogle home isn't eavesdropping there'sa small chip on the device that listensout for the so-called hot wordit's waiting for the command ok googleor hey googleand only then is the microphone switchedon to send a voice command or searchrequest to the internetthe google server it then presents theresultsso as a science reporter i'm naturallycurious about the futurethere's this patent application fromseptember 2016.google's application gives a detailedaccount of what can be deduced fromhousehold noiseshow long we brush our teeth whether weargueor whether a housemate is illit's much more about capturingatmosphere and habits than wordsand it's a google patent applicationthat anyone can look upi don't know anything about thisparticular patent applicationwe have a whole series of patentapplications every year most of them areimaginary fictitious serviceswhich like in many other companies arenever translated into real services[Music]services google's eu lobbying activitiesat leastare unarguably real[Music]how much does google intervene in the eui think the more important question isthe one that lies between the linesnamely how ethically does a company dealwith product developmentand we have set our own rules accordingto principles that guide our own actionsresearch and product development thatalso guides our business decisionson its home turf in the united statesgoogle is facingmounting political pressure inwashington we meet barry lynnhead of the think tank open marketinstitute he warns of the dangers posedby tech giants influencewe need to know in our society that thepeople who bring informationto the public sphere who talk to thepresswho talk to the rep our representativesuh in congress that they represent theirownselves that they're speaking in theirown name and not for someone elsethat they're not stooges that they'renot puppets and the fact is today oursociety this is truehere in washington is true in europe oursociety is filled with puppetswith stooges who represent the interestsof googleand facebook and amazongiven big tech's monopoly power callsfor regulation are growing louder inwashingtonwhen you have a monopoly whether it'sover retail whether it's over searchthen it means that the the publicdoesn't actually have the ability tounderstandhow that information is being used howthat power is being used monopolyper se unless it is regulated closely bythe public is a dangergoogle means to take overthe world they mean to directour thoughts between person and personour communications between person andpersonour dealings and business betweenperson and corporation they mean todirecteverything that they can they want toknow what's going on in ourthermostats and our houses they want toknow what we're watching on tvthey are at a level ofhubris that even the the stalinistscould neverhave imagined uh uh pushing forgoogle facebook amazon will theinfluence of tech giants continue togrowwhat can be done to rein in theirmonopoliesone thing is clear artificialintelligence is consolidating their gripon powerthere's an urgent need to rethinkanti-trust policy[Music]mobility is another area in which ai ispowering the march of innovationin the near future it could putself-driving cars on city roadsbut how realistic is this visionwe've come to boston to the prestigiousmassachusettsinstitute of technologycertus caraman is a leading expert inthe field of self-driving carshe and his team are working on prototypeautonomous vehiclesi think that we've nailed a couple itemswithcomputers and machines one is all ofthis mapping and localization all thattechnologyworks super well computers can knowwhere they arewithin centimeter maybe sometimes with amillimeter precision way more than whatis required to drivecomputers are not able to look aroundand understandwhere everybody else's but that's notthat's not what's required for drivingwhat's really requiredis to understand what's going to happennext in the next three secondsfive seconds next minutes maybe evensometimes next hourand so that's the key missing piece andi think the problem thereis that right now it's very hardfor you to describe to me how youunderstandwhether or not a person is going to usethe sidewalkor is going to use the crosswalk andcross the streetsometimes you look at the face of aperson and that facial impression givesthem awayand you will slow down sometimes notthey may be looking at the samedirectionthey may be standing in the samelocation it's just a little faceimpressionmaybe just the way they stand andunfortunately that kind ofintuition gut feeling and so on isvery hard for us to program into thecomputers[Music]it works in a simple lab environment butin real life settings the algorithms arestill totally out of their depthnot that that bothers advertisersour test drives were nothing but aseries of glitchesan inexplicable emergency stopand another one on the second attemptthe sensors on this vehicle were overtaxed by a car parked on the curband here this smart car overlooked a carveering into our lanewell that didn't work talking to the mitengineersit becomes clear that to build aself-driving cardevelopers need to meet a massive scaleof technical requirementswhat i think about fully autonomous carsis that i think i would be verysurprisedif it happens in less than 10 years alsoi will be very surprised i'm a bigbeliever i'd be very surprised if itdoesn't happen in 20 30 yearsi think it will happen at some point buti do think that people reallyunderestimate the kind of technologyrequired to be builtto make your car fully autonomous underevery condition every circumstance everywhatsoeverthat's the very hard part[Music][Applause]ultra fun driving is not as trivial aprocess as you might thinkand that's because you constantly haveto watch what's going on around youcyclists pedestrians sometimes you haveto second guessdoes this guy want to cross the road ornot it's hard to imagine all that beingcalculated automatically[Music][Music]a self-driving vehicle would have to beable to deal with all of this toohere we have a truck doing a three-pointturni may have to back up now if he doesn'tmake it[Music]does she want to cross the road or notsome people don't even wait[Music]the fully autonomous car is a distantdream but driver assistance systems arealready making ourroads saferan accident filmed from a car equippedwith emergency brake assistthe sequence of events can be assessedin slow motionthe red vehicle ahead overlooks theupcoming traffic jamno brake lights appear but the distancesensor in thiscar registers the jam breaks andprevents a further collisionbut which principles should guidedecisions made by technology in anaccident situationin recent years mit's media lab has beenaddressing the ethical questions raisedby artificial intelligencewhat moral compass should future smartdevices refer to[Music]is one of the world's leading experts onsuch issueshe and his team developed a surveycalled the moral machine to exploreethics for programming autonomousvehicleslike in the event of an accidentmost of the time people don't rememberanythingand people have no time to reacteverything happens very quicklyso they just are surprisedmaybe they see something in front ofthem and they just swerve insome random direction or maybe they justfreak out andpress the brakes so you cannot expect ahuman being to do the right thingin that small exactly in that in such asmall time scale unless you know theythey made a decision beforehand like youknow did theydrink and drive or did they know thatthey were going to cross a red lightthen you blame them but otherwise youcan't really blame the humanbut with a machine because of the speedof theelectronics because the autonomous caris evaluating the environmentyou know millions of times per secondthen time goes much slower for themachine and it's able torecalculate the situation and mayberecalculate the strategyand this is where we can makea potentially better judgment than thewhatever randomchoice the human used to make in thissituationnow what is better though is a veryinteresting question and it's notobvious and let's see a case where wehave people versus people so now we haveum the vehicle has two people inside ofitokay and um it's going to eitherswerve and hit the barrier so the peoplewill die in the caror the car will go straight and kill thepedestrians the pedestrianswho are crossing illegally but they'realso women andand these uh the people in the car aremales so nowit gets very complicated very quicklyshould you prioritize women over men orshould everybody be the sameshould you prioritize pedestrian overpassenger or notshould you take into account the factthat people arecrossing illegally in this case so asyou can seeonce you have multiple dimensions itbecomesnot obvious what the right thing to doisa or b who should diethe elderly lady crossing on redor the child in the self-driving carwhat choiceshould the algorithm make ead's onlinesurvey presents respondents with variousscenarios each with its own uniquedilemmarespondents are then asked to choose howthey would want an algorithm to decideso as a result we have 40 milliondecisionsand they're still counting from peopleall over the worldand it enables us to start analyzingwhat do people agree onbut also how do they differ[Music]so does our culture influence our moraljudgmentspeople always agree on saving more livessaving children saving people who crosslegallyover people who don't cross legally andso onthe most interesting part is you couldpick a countrylike germany yes and you could see howthey compared to the global average youcould seeah okay so the status is not reallyimportant but what you can seein germany is preferring in action yeahso if you don't have toif you prefer to just go straight yeswhich is the defaultdon't take a decision exactly this meansgermans don't like to take a decisionyesgermans don't like other peopleyou say close your eyes and and go andjust go so sothis means in other words you can see abit the acceptanceof technology taking a decisionand the more you say inaction meansa comparison of germany and francereveals cultural differencesthe french tend to favor sparing womenand there's a stronger focus on childrenand contrary to germans the french don'twant to leave things to fatethey want the machine to make thedecisionthe machine is kind of a mirror for thefirst timesomething that you did subconsciously ormaybe instinctively in the case of anaccident you know you justact randomly now you have to make aconscious choiceand the machine is forcing you to make achoiceright you cannot you cannot hand wave itbecause in the end you have to programsomethingdriverless cars aren't yet ready for theroad and ethical questionsstill abound artificial intelligenceharbors immense potentialto benefit daily life medicine ormobilitybut we also need to look beyond thetechnical possibilitieswhat aim does such progress serve it's aquestionartificial intelligence algorithms can'tansweronly humankind can do that[Music]you