Select Page

Original & Concise Bullet Point Briefs

The Art of War by Sun Tzu: Entire Unabridged Audiobook

Examining the Vitality of War: 8 Key Factors for Military Success

  • War is of vital importance to the state
  • Five factors must be taken into account when determining military conditions: moral law, heaven, earth, commander, and method and discipline
  • War must be based on deception
  • Use baits and feign disorder
  • Use helpful circumstances to modify plans
  • Calculate to forecast victory or defeat
  • Expend resources carefully
  • Provide rewards for those who take first in battle
  • Substitute own flag for enemy’s and use conquered forces to increase strength.

Tactics of War: The Keys to Defeating the Enemy

  • The essential elements of victory in war are knowing when and how to fight
  • Understanding how to use small and large forces
  • Having a unified army
  • Preparing in advance and having military acumen
  • Employing officers with discrimination
  • Avoiding sieges
  • Using stratagems to attack the enemy’s plans, forces, and cities without fighting if possible
  • Being able to control one’s own emotions
  • Outnumbering the enemy or fleeing if unequal in numbers.

How to Achieve Victory on the Battlefield: A Guide to Tactical Dispositions

  • Fighting effectively in an army of any size requires the division of forces and the establishment of clear signals
  • Weak points and strong should be identified and tactical dispositions utilized to deceive enemies
  • The clever fighter will have a combination of both direct and indirect methods, as well as judicious decisions
  • Concealment can also be used for strategic advantage by keeping the enemy guessing
  • Victory is achieved through the combined energy of different forces and the timely application of tactics.

The Art of War: Sun Tzus Strategies for Success in Battle

  • Maneuver tactics are key to success in war
  • Sun Tzu suggested that an army without its baggage train is lost, as well as one without provisions or a basis of supply
  • He recommends blending and harmonizing the different elements of an army before pitching camp
  • Deception and misdirection should be used to turn the enemy’s strength against them while avoiding their own weaknesses
  • Signals such as gongs, drums, banners, and flags should be used to focus the attention of the troops on one point
  • A commander-in-chief should take advantage of times when the enemy’s spirit is low and avoid them when it is high.

The Path to Military Victory: Utilizing Sun Tzus Ancient Strategies

  • Sun Tzu stresses the importance of studying and understanding situations before taking action, as well as being aware of natural features in order to take advantage of them
  • He outlines five general faults that can result in an army’s destruction
  • There are four branches of military knowledge which enabled the Yellow Emperor to win his wars
  • Sun Tzu explains how to optimize encampments in different terrains and landscapes
  • Natural features can be used to assess an enemy’s strategy, such as dust rising to indicate chariots or startled beasts to indicate an ambush.

Unravelling the Risks of Military Defeat: Understanding Terrain, Leadership and Structure

  • The conditions of terrain must be studied and understood in order to gain an advantage
  • Six calamities can arise from faults of the general rather than external forces, such as flight, insubordination, collapse, ruin, disorganization and rout
  • The strength of a force should not be thrown against another ten times its size
  • If the common soldiers are too strong or the officers too weak it will lead to insubordination or collapse respectively
  • Anger and disobedience amongst higher officers may result in ruin
  • If duties are not clearly defined and ranks not properly formed it will cause disorganization
  • Weak detachments facing powerful ones or not placing picked soldiers in front will lead to rout.

Unveiling Sun Tzus Advice on Winning a War

  • Sun Tzu outlines the nine different kinds of ground upon which war is conducted
  • Sun Tzu provides advice on how to respond to each of these nine grounds
  • Sun Tzu advises that an invading force should seize something valuable to the enemy and make use of unexpected routes in order to win a battle
  • Sun Tzu emphasizes the importance of taking care of one’s troops and not overtaxing them or burdening them with too much money or responsibility
  • Lastly, Sun Tzu encourages soldiers to maintain courage even when they are facing death.

Secrets of Successful Generalship: Mastering the Fundamentals of War

  • The proper use of ground, the fundamental laws of human nature, and the five methods to attack with fire
  • The skillful general must maintain secrecy and order in his army, burn boats and cooking pots to prevent enemy knowledge, and adjust plans to keep them guessing
  • On dispersive ground inspire unity, on facile ground ensure connection between parts of the army
  • On serious or desperate ground fortify supplies or proclaim hopelessness respectively
  • To successfully invade hostile territory penetrate deeply for cohesion
  • Block all ways of retreat on hemmed-in or dangerous ground.

Unlocking Victory: The Power of Strategic Spying

  • Spies are a critical element in military success, as they provide knowledge of the enemy that could not otherwise be obtained
  • Five varieties of spies should be employed: Local, Inward, Converted, Doomed and Surviving spies
  • Information gathered by Converted spies enables further use of other kinds of spies
  • Rewards and secrecy should be used when managing spies
  • Intelligence is essential to successful spying
  • The wise ruler and general use this intelligence to gain victory.

Original & Concise Bullet Point Briefs

With VidCatter’s AI technology, you can get original briefs in easy-to-read bullet points within seconds. Our platform is also highly customizable, making it perfect for students, executives, and anyone who needs to extract important information from video or audio content quickly.

  • Scroll through to check it out for yourself!
  • Original summaries that highlight the key points of your content
  • Customizable to fit your specific needs
  • AI-powered technology that ensures accuracy and comprehensiveness
  • Scroll through to check it out for yourself!
  • Original summaries that highlight the key points of your content
  • Customizable to fit your specific needs
  • AI-powered technology that ensures accuracy and comprehensiveness

Unlock the Power of Efficiency: Get Briefed, Don’t Skim or Watch!

Experience the power of instant video insights with VidCatter! Don’t waste valuable time watching lengthy videos. Our AI-powered platform generates concise summaries that let you read, not watch. Stay informed, save time, and extract key information effortlessly.

sun tzu and the art of warchapter onelaying planssuntsu said the art of war is of vitalimportance to the stateit is a matter of life and death a roadeither to safety or to ruinhence it is a subject of inquiry whichcan on no account be neglectedthe art of war then is governed by fiveconstant factors to be taken intoaccount in one's deliberations whenseeking to determine the conditionsobtaining in the fieldthese areone the moral lawtwoheaventhreeearthfourthe commanderfive method and disciplinethe moral law causes the people to be incomplete accord with their ruler so thatthey will follow him regardless of theirlives undismayed by any dangerheaven signifies night and day cold andheat times and seasonsearth comprises distances great andsmalldanger and security open ground andnarrow passes the chances of life anddeaththe commander stands for the virtues ofwisdom sincerity benevolence courage andstrictnessby method and discipline are to beunderstood the marshalling of the armyin its proper subdivisionsthe graduations of rank among theofficers the maintenance of roads bywhich supplies may reach the army andthe control of military expenditurethese five heads should be familiar toevery general he who knows them will bevictorious he who knows him not willfailtherefore in your deliberations whenseeking to determine the militaryconditions let them be made the basis ofa comparisonin this wiseonewhich of the two sovereigns is imbuedwith the moral lawtwowhich of the two generals has mostabilitythree with whom let the advantagesderive from heaven and earthfouron which side is discipline mostrigorously enforcedfive which army is strongersix on which side are officers and menmore highly trainedsevenin which army is there the greaterconstancy both in reward and punishmentby means of these seven considerations ican forecast victory or defeatthe general that hearkens to my counciland acts upon it will conquerlet such a one be retained in commandthe general that hearkens not to mycouncil nor acts upon it will sufferdefeatlet such a one be dismissedwhile heeding the prophet of my counselavail yourselves also of any helpfulcircumstances over and beyond theordinary rulesaccordingly as circumstances arefavorable one should modify one's plansall warfare is based on deception hencewhen able to attack we must seem unablewhen using our forces we must seeminactive when we are near we must makethe enemy believe we are far away whenfar away we must make him believe we arenearhold out baits to entice the enemy feigndisorder and crush himif he is secure at all points beprepared for him if he is in superiorstrength evade himif your opponent is a calyric temperseek to irritate him pretend to be weakthat he may grow arrogantif he is taking his ease give him norest if his forces are united separatethemattack him when he is unprepared appearwhere you are not expectedthese military devices leading tovictory must not be divulged beforehandnow the general who wins a battle makesmany calculations in his temple heir thebattle is foughtthe general who loses a battle makes butfew calculations beforehandthus do many calculations lead tovictory and few calculations to defeathow much more no calculation at allit is by attention to this point that ican foresee who is likely to win or losechapter 2waging warsuntsu said in the operations of warwhere there are in the field a thousandswift chariotsas many heavy chariots and a hundredthousand male glad soldiers withprovisions enough to carry them athousandlythe expenditure at home and at the frontincluding entertainment of guests smallitems such as glue and paint and somespent on chariots and armorwill reach the total of a thousandounces of silver per daysuch is the cost of raising an army ofone hundred thousand menwhen you engage in actual fighting ifvictory is long in coming then men'sweapons will grow dull and their ardorwill be dampedif you lay siege to a town you willexhaust your strengthagain if the campaign is protracted theresources of the state will not be equalto the strainnow when your weapons are dulled yourardor damped your strength exhausted andyour treasure spentother chieftains will spring up to takeadvantage of your extremitythen no man however wise will be able toavert the consequences that must ensuethus though we have heard of stupidhaste in war cleverness has never beenseen associated with long delaysthere is no instance of a country havingbenefited from prolonged war it is onlyone who is thoroughly acquainted withthe evils of warthat can thoroughly understand theprofitable way of carrying it ona skillful soldier does not raise asecond levy neither are his supplywagons loaded more than twicebring war material with you from homebut forage on the enemythus the army will have food enough forits needspoverty of the state exchequer causes anarmy to be maintained by contributionsfrom a distancecontributing to maintain an army at adistance causes the people to beimpoverishedon the other hand the proximity of anarmy causes prices to go upand high prices cause the people'ssubstance to be drained awaywhen their substance is drained away thepeasantry will be afflicted by heavyexactionswith this loss of substance andexhaustion of strength the homes of thepeople will be stripped bare and threetenths of their income will bedissipated while government expenses forbroken chariots worn out horsesbreastplates and helmets bows and arrowsspears and shields protective mantlesdraft oxen and heavy wagons will amountto four tenths of its total revenuehence a wise general makes a point offoraging on the enemyone cartload of the enemy's provisionsis equivalent to 20 of one's own andlikewise a single pickle from hisprevender is equal to 20 from one's ownstorenowin order to kill the enemy our men mustbe roused to angerthat there may be advantage fromdefeating the enemy they must have theirrewardstherefore in chariot fighting when tenor more chariots have been taken thoseshould be rewarded who took the firstour own flag should be substituted forthose of the enemy and the chariotsmingled and used in conjunction with ourownthe captured soldiers should be kindlytreated and keptthis is called using the conquered foeto augment one's own strengthin war then let your great object bevictory not lengthy campaigns thus itmay be known that the leader of armiesis the arbiter of the people's fate theman on whom it depends whether thenation shall be in peace or in perilchapter 3 attack by stratagemsun tzu saidin the practical art of war the bestthing of all is to take the enemy'scountry whole and intact to shout anddestroy it is not so good so too it isbetter to recapture an army entire thanto destroy it to capture a regiment adetachment or a company entire than todestroy themhence to fight and conquer in all yourbattles is not supreme excellencesupreme excellence consists in breakingthe enemy's resistance without fightingthus the highest form of generalship isto bulk the enemy's plans the next bestis to prevent the junction of theenemy's forces the next in order is toattack the enemy's army in the field andthe worst policy of all is to besiegewalled citiesthe rule is not to besiege walled citiesif it can possibly be avoided thepreparation of mantlets movable sheltersand various implements of war will takeup three whole months and the piling upof mounds over against the walls willtake three months morethe general unable to control hisirritation will launch his men to theassault like swarming ants with theresult that one third of his men areslain while the town still remainsuntakensuch are the disastrous effects of asiegetherefore the skilled leader subdues theenemy's troops without any fighting hecaptures their cities without layingsiege to them he overthrows theirkingdom without lengthy operations inthe fieldwith his forces intact he will disputethe mastery of the empire and thuswithout losing a man his triumph will becompletethis is the method of attacking bystratagemit is the rule in war if our forces aretend to the enemies one to surround himif five to one to attack him if twice asnumerous to divide our army into twoif equally matched we can offer battleis slightly inferior in numbers we canavoid the enemyif quite unequal in every way we canflee from himhence though an obstinate fight may bemade by a small forcein the end it must be captured by thelarger forcenow the general is the bulwark of thestate if the bulwark is complete at allpoints the state will be strongif the bulwark is defective the statewill be weakthere are three ways in which a rulercan bring misfortune upon his armyby commanding the army to advance or toretreat being ignorant to the fact thatit cannot obeythis is called hobbling the armyby attempting to govern an army in thesame way as he administers a kingdombeing ignorant of the conditions whichobtain an army this causes restlessnessin the soldiers mindsby employing the officers of his armywithout discrimination through ignoranceof the military principle of adaption tocircumstancesthis shakes the confidence of thesoldiersbut when the army is restless anddistrustful trouble is sure to come fromthe other feudal princesthis is simply bringing anarchy into thearmy and flinging victory awaythus we may know that there are fiveessentials for victoryone he will win who knows when to fightand when not to fighttwo he will win who knows how to handleboth superior and inferior forces3. he will win whose army is animated bythe same spirit throughout all its ranks4. he will win who prepared himselfwaits to take the enemy unprepared5. he will win who has military capacityand is not interfered with by thesovereignhence the sayingif you know the enemy and know yourselfyou need not fear the result of ahundred battlesif you know yourself but not the enemyfor every victory gained you will alsosuffer a defeatif you know neither the enemy noryourself you will succumb in everybattlechapter 4 tactical dispositionssuntsu said the good fighters of oldfirst put themselves beyond thepossibility of defeat and then waitedfor an opportunity of defeating theenemyto secure ourselves against defeat liesin our own hands but the opportunity ofdefeating the enemy is provided by theenemy himselfthus the good fighter is able to securehimself against defeat but cannot makecertain of defeating the enemyhence the saying one may know how toconquer without being able to do itsecurity against defeat impliesdefensive tacticsability to defeat the enemy means takingthe offensivestanding on the defensive indicatesinsufficient strengthattacking a super abundance of strengththe general who is skilled in defensehides in the most secret recesses of theearthhe who is skilled in attack flashesfalls from the topmost heights of heaventhus on one hand we have ability toprotect ourselves on the other a victorythat is completeto see victory only when it is withinthe can of the common herd is not theacme of excellenceneither is it the acme of excellence ifyou fight and conquer and the wholeempire says well doneto lift an autumn hair is no sign ofgreat strengthto see the sun and moon is no sign ofsharp sightto hear the noise of thunder is no signof a quick earwhat the ancients called a cleverfighter is one who not only wins butexcels in winning with easehence his victories bring him neitherreputation for wisdom nor credit forcouragehe wins his battles by making nomistakes making no mistakes is whatestablishes the certainty of victory forit means conquering an enemy that isalready defeatedhence the skillful fighter puts himselfinto a position which makes defeatimpossible and does not miss the momentfor defeating the enemythus it is that in war the victoriousstrategist only seeks battle after thevictory has been won whereas he who isdestined to defeat first fights andafterwards looks for victorythe consummate leader cultivates themoral law and strictly adheres to methodand disciplinethus it is in his power to controlsuccessin respect of military method we havefirstly measurementsecondly estimation of quantitythirdly calculationfourthly balancing of chances fifthlyvictorymeasurement owes its existence to earthestimation of quantity to measurementcalculation to estimation of quantitybalancing of chances to calculationand victory to balancing of chancesa victorious army opposed to a routedone is as a pound weight placed in ascale against a single grainthe on rush of a conquering force islike the bursting of pent-up waters intoa chasm a thousand fathoms deepchapter fiveenergysun tzu said the control of a largeforce is the same principle as thecontrol of a few men it is merely aquestion of dividing up their numbersfighting with a large army under yourcommand is no wise different fromfighting with a small one it is merely aquestion of instituting signs andsignalsto ensure that your whole host maywithstand the brunt of the enemy'sattack and remain unshakenthis is effective by maneuvers directand indirectthen the impact of your army may be likea grindstone dashed against an egg thisis affected by the science of weakpoints and strongin all fighting the direct method may beused for joining battle but indirectmethods will be needed in order tosecure victoryindirect tactics efficiently applied areinexhaustible as heaven and earth andending as the flow of rivers and streamslike the sun and moon they end but tobegin anew like the four seasons theypass away to return once morethere are not more than five musicalnotes yet the combinations of these fivegive rise to more melodies than can everbe heardthere are not more than five primarycolors blue yellow red white blackyet in combination they produce morehues that can ever be seenthere are not more than five cardinaltastes sour acrid salt sweet bitteryet combinations of them yield moreflavors than can ever be tastedin battles there are not more than twomethods of attack the direct and theindirect yet these two in combinationgive rise to an endless series ofmaneuversthe direct and the indirect lead on toeach other in turn it is like moving ina circle you never come to an end whocan exhaust the possibilities of theircombinationthe onset of troops is like the rush ofa torrent which will even roll stonesalong in its coursethe quality of decision is like thewell-timed swoop of a falcon whichenables it to strike and destroy itsvictimtherefore the good fighter will beterrible in his onset and prompt in hisdecisionenergy may be likened to the bending ofa crossbow decision to the releasing ofa triggeramid the turmoil and tumult of battlethere may be seeming disorder and yet noreal disorder at allamid confusion and chaos your array maybe without head or tail yet it will beproof against defeatsimulated disorder postulates perfectdiscipline simulated fear postulatescourage simulated weakness postulatesstrengthhiding order between the cloak ofdisorder is simply a question ofsubdivisionconcealing courage under a show oftimidity presupposes a fund of latentenergy masking strength with weakness isto be affected by tactical dispositionsthus one who is skillful at keeping theenemy on the move maintains deceitfulappearances according to which the enemywill acthe sacrifices something that the enemymay snatch atby holding our baits he keeps him on themarch then with the body of pikmin helies in wait for himthe clever competent looks to the effectof combined energy does not require toomuch from individualshence his ability to pick out the rightmen and utilize combined energywhen he utilizes combined energy hisfighting men become as it were like ontorolling logs or stonesfor it is in the nature of a log or astone to remain motionless on levelground and to move when on a slopeif four cornered to come to a standstillbut if round shaped to go rolling downthus the energy developed by goodfighting men is as the momentum of around stone rolled down a mountainthousands of feet in heightso much on the subject of energychapter sixweak points and strongsun tzu said whoever is first in thefield and awaits the coming of the enemywill be fresh for the fight whoever issecond in the field and has to hasten tobattle will arrive exhaustedtherefore the clever combatant imposeshis will on the enemy but does not allowthe enemy's will to be imposed on himby holding out advantages to him he cancause the enemy to approach of his ownaccordor by inflicting damage he can make itimpossible for the enemy to draw near ifthe enemy is taking his ease he canharass himif well supplied with food he can starvehim outif quietly encamped he can force him tomoveappear at points which the enemy musthasten to defendmarch swiftly to places where you arenot expectedan army may march great distanceswithout distress if it marches throughcountry where the enemy is notyou can be sure of succeeding in yourattacks if you only attack places whichare undefendedyou can ensure the safety of yourdefense if you only hold positions thatcannot be attackedhence that general is skillful attackwhose opponent does not know what todefendand he is skillful in defense whoseopponent does not know what to attackno divine art of subtlety and secrecythrough you we learn to be invisiblethrough you inaudible and hence we canhold the enemy's fate in our handsyou may advance and be absolutelyirresistible if you make for the enemy'sweak pointsyou may retire and be safe for pursuitif your movements are more rapid thanthose of the enemyif we wish to fight the enemy can beforced to an engagement even though hebe sheltered behind a high rampart and adeep ditchall we need to do is attack some otherplace that he will be obliged to relieveif we do not wish to fight we canprevent the enemy from engaging us eventhough the lines of our encampment bemerely traced out on the ground all weneed to do is to throw something odd andunaccountable in his wayby discovering the enemy's dispositionsand remaining invisible ourselves we cankeep our forces concentrated while theenemies must be dividedwe can form a single united body whilethe enemy must split up into fractionshence there will be a hole pittedagainst separate parts of a hole whichmeans that we shall be many to theenemy's fewand if we are able thus to attack aninferior force with the superior one ouropponents will be in dire straitsthe spot where we intend to fight mustnot be made known for then the enemywill have to prepare against a possibleattack at several different points andhis forces being thus distributed inmany directions the numbers we shallhave to face at any given point will beproportionately fewfour should the enemy strengthen his vanhe will weaken his rear should hestrengthen his rear he will weaken hisvan should he strengthen his left hewill weaken his right should hestrengthen his right he will weaken hisleftif he sends reinforcements everywhere hewill everywhere be weaknumerical weakness comes from having toprepare against possible attacksnumerical strength from compelling ouradversary to make these preparationsagainst usknowing the place and the time of thecoming battle we may concentrate fromthe greatest distances in order to fightbut if neither time nor place be knownthen the left wing will be impotent tosucker the right the right equallyimpotent to sucker the leftthe van unable to relieve the rear orthe rear to support the vanhow much more so if the furthestportions of the army are anything undera hundred lie apart and even the nearestare separated by several lithough according to my estimate thesoldiers away exceeded our only numberthat shall advantage them nothing in thematter of victoryi say then that victory can be achievedthough the enemy be stronger in numberswe may prevent him from fighting schemesas to discover his plans and thelikelihood of their successarouse him and learn the principle ofhis activity or inactivityforce him to reveal himself so as tofind out his vulnerable spotscarefully compare the opposing army withyour own so that you may know wherestrength is super abundant and where itis deficientin making tactical dispositions thehighest pitch you can attain is toconceal them conceal your dispositionsand you will be safe from the prying ofthe subtlest spies from the machinationsof the wisest brainshow victory may be produced for them outof the enemy's own tacticsthat is what the multitude cannotcomprehendall men can see the tactics whereby iconquer but what none can seize thestrategy out of which victory is evolveddo not repeat the tactics which havegained you one victory but let yourmethods be regulated by the infinitevariety of circumstancesmilitary tactics are like underwater forwater in its natural course runs awayfrom high places and hastens downwardsso in war the way is to avoid what isstrong and to strike at what is weakwater shapes its course according to thenature of the ground over which it flowsthe soldier works out his victory inrelation to the foe whom he is facingtherefore just as water retains noconstant shape so in warfare there areno constant conditionshe who can modify his tactics inrelation to his opponent and therebysucceed in winning may be called aheaven-born captainthe five elements water fire wood metalearth are not always equally predominantthe four seasons make way for each otherin turn there are short days and longthe moon has its periods of waning andwaxingchapter 7 maneuveringsun tzu saidin war the general receives his commandfrom the sovereignhaving collected an army andconcentrated his forces he must blendand harmonize the different elementsthereof before pitching his campafter that comes tactical maneuveringthan which there is nothing moredifficultthe difficulty of tactical maneuveringconsists in turning the devious into thedirect and misfortune into gainthus to take on long and sequitus rootafter enticing the enemy out of the wayand those starting after him to contriveto reach the goal before him showsknowledge of the artifice of deviationmaneuvering with an army is advantageouswith an undisciplined multitude mostdangerousif you set a fully equipped army inmarch in order to snatch an advantagethe chances are that you will be toolateon the other hand to detach a flyingcolumn for the purpose involves thesacrifice of its baggage and storesthus if you order your men to roll uptheir buff coats and make forced marcheswithout halting day or night coveringdouble the usual distance at a stretchdoing a hundred li in order to rest anadvantage the leaders of all your threedivisions will fall into the hands ofthe enemythe stronger men will be in front thejaded ones will fall behind and on thisplan only one tenth of your army willreach its destinationif you march 50 li in order tooutmaneuver the enemy you will lose theleader of your first division and onlyhalf your force will reach the goalif you march 30 li with the same objecttwo-thirds of your army will arrivewe may take it then that an army withoutits baggage train is lost withoutprovisions it is lost without basis ofsupply it is lostwe cannot enter into alliance until weare acquainted with the designs of ourneighborswe're not fit to lead an army on themarch unless we are familiar with theface of the country its mountains andforests its pitfalls and precipicesits marshes and swampswe shall be unable to turn naturaladvantage to account unless we make useof local guidesin war practice dissimulation and youwill succeedwhether to concentrate or to divide yourtroops must be decided by circumstanceslet your rapidity be that of the windyour compactness that of the forestin raiding and plundering be like fireimmovability is like a mountainlet your plans be dark and impenetrableas night and when you move fall like athunderboltwhen you plunder a countryside let thespoil be divided amongst your men whenyou capture new territory cut it up intoallotments for the benefit of thesoldieryponder and deliberate before you make amove he will conquer who has learned theartifice of deviationsuch is the art of maneuveringthe book of army management says on thefield of battle the spoken word does notcarry far enoughhence the institution of gongs and drumsnor can ordinary objects be seen clearlyenoughhence the institution of banners andflagsgongs and drums banners and flags aremeans whereby the ears and eyes of thehost may be focused on one particularpointthe host thus forming a single unitedbody it is impossible either for thebrave to advance alone or for thecowardly to retreat alonethis is the art of handling large massesof menin night fighting then make much use ofsignal fires and drums and in fightingby day are flags and banners as a meansof influencing the ears and eyes of yourarmy the whole army may be robbed of itsspirit a commander-in-chief may berobbed of his presence of mindnow a soldier's spirit is keenest in themorning by noonday it has begun to flagand in the evening his mind is bent onlyon returning to campa clever general therefore avoids anarmy when the spirit is keen but attacksit when it is sluggish and inclined toreturnthis is the art of studying moodsdisciplined and calm to await theappearance of disorder and hubbubamongst the enemy this is the art ofretaining self-possessionto be near the goal while the enemy isstill far from it to wait at ease whilethe enemy is toiling and strugglingto be well fed while the enemy isfamishedthis is the art of husband england'sstrengthto refrain from intercepting an enemywhose banners are in perfect order torefrain from attacking an army drawn upin calm and confident arraythis is the art of studyingcircumstancesit is a military axiom not to advanceuphill against the enemy nor to opposehim when he comes downhilldo not pursue an enemy who simulatesflight do not attack soldiers whosetemper is keendo not swallow bait offered by the enemydo not interfere with an army that isreturning homewhen you surround an army leave anoutlet free do not press a desperate foetoo hardsuch is the art of warfarechapter 8 variation in tacticssun tzu said in war the general receiveshis commands from the sovereign collectshis army and concentrates his forceswhen in difficult country do not in campin country where high roads intersectjoin hands with your allies do notlinger in dangerously isolated positionsin hammed in situations you must resortto stratagemin desperate position you must fightthere are roads which must not befollowed armies which must not beattackedtowns which must be besieged positionswhich must not be contestedcommand of the sovereign which must notbe obeyedthe general who thoroughly understandsthe advantages that accompany variationof tactics knows how to handle histroopsthe general who does not understandthese may be well acquainted with theconfiguration of the country yet he willnot be able to turn his knowledge topractical accountso the student of war who is unversed inthe art of war of varying his plans eventhough he be acquainted with the fiveadvantages will fail to make the bestuse of his menhence in the wise leaders plansconsiderations of advantage and ofdisadvantage will be blended togetherif our expectation of advantage betempered in this way we may succeed inaccomplishing the essential part of ourschemesif on the other hand in the midst ofdifficulties we are always ready toseize an advantage we may extricateourselves from misfortunereduce the hostile chiefs by inflictingdamage on them and make trouble for themand keep them constantly engagedhold out specious alermans and make themrush to any given pointthe art of war teaches us to rely not onthe likelihood of the enemies not comingbut on our own readiness to receive himnot on the chance of his not attackingbut rather on the fact that we have madeour position unassailablethere are five dangerous faults whichmay affect a generalone recklessness which leads todestructiontwocowardice which leads to capture3. a hasty temper which can be provokedby insults4. a delicacy of honor which issensitive to shame5.over-solicitude for his men whichexposes him to worry and troublethese are the five besetting sins of ageneral ruiners to the conduct of warwhen an army is overthrown and itsleader slain the cause will surely befound among these five dangerous faultslet them be subject of meditationchapter nine the army on the marchsun tzu said we come now to the questionof encamping the army and observingsigns of the enemypass quickly over mountains and keep inthe neighborhood of valleyscamp in high places facing the sun donot climb heights in order to fight somuch for mountain warfareafter crossing a river you should getfar away from itwhen an invading force crosses a riverin its onward march do not advance tomeet it midstream it will be best to lethalf the army get across and thendeliver your attackif you are anxious to fight you shouldnot go to meet the invader near a riverwhich he has to crossmore your craft higher up than the enemyand facing the sun do not move upstreamto meet the enemyso much for river warfarein crossing salt marshes your soleconcern should be to get over themquickly without any delayif forced to fight in a salt marsh youshould have water and grass near you andget your back to a clump of treesso much for operations in salt marshesin dry level country take up an easilyaccessible position with rising groundto your right and on your rear so thatthe danger may be in front and safetylie behindso much for campaigning in flat countrythese are four useful branches ofmilitary knowledge which enabled theyellow emperor to vanquish four severalsovereignsall armies prefer high ground to low andsunny places to darkif you are careful with your men andcamp on hard ground the army will befree from disease of every kind and thiswill spell victorywhen you come to a hill or a bank occupythe sunny side with the slope on yourright rear thus you will at once act forthe benefit of your soldiers and utilizethe natural advantages of the groundwhen in consequence of heavy rains upcountry a river which you wish to affordis swollen and flecked with foam youmust wait till it subsidescountry in which there are precipitouscliffs with torrents running betweendeep natural hollows confined placestangled thickets quagmires and crevicesshould be left with all possible speedand not approachedwhile we keep away from such places weshould get the enemy to approach themwhile we face them we should let theenemy have them on its rear if in theneighborhood of your camp there shouldbe any hidden country ponds surroundedby aquatic grass hollow basins filledwith reeds or woods with thickundergrowth they must be carefullyrouted out and searched for these areplaces where men in ambush or insidiousspies are likely to be lurkingwhen the enemy is close at hand andremains quiet he is relying on thenatural strength of his positionwhen he keeps aloof and tries to provokea battle he is anxious for the otherside to advanceif his place of encampment is easy ofaccess he is tendering a baitmovement amongst the trees of a forestshows that the enemy is advancingthe appearance of a number of screens inthe midst of thick grass means that theenemy wants to make us suspiciousthe rising of birds that flight is thesign of an ambuscade startled beastindicate that a sudden attack is comingwhen there is dust rising in a highcolumn it is the sign of chariotsadvancingwhen the dust is low but spread over awide area it be tokens the approach ofinfantrywhen it branches out in differentdirections it shows that parties havebeen sent to collect firewooda few clouds of dust moving to and frosignify that the army is in campinghumble words and increase preparationsare signs that the enemy is about toadvanceviolent language and driving forward asif to attack are signs that he willretreatwhen the light chariots come out firstand take up a position on the wings itis a sign that the enemy is forming forbattlepeace proposals unaccompanied by a sworncovenant indicate a plotwhen there is much running about and thesoldiers fall into rank it means thatthe critical moment has comewhen some are seen advancing and someretreating it is allurewhen the soldiers stand leaning on theirspears they are faint from want offood if those who are sent to draw waterbegin by drinking themselves the army issuffering from thirstif the enemy sees an advantage to begained and makes no effort to secure itthe soldiers are exhaustedif birds gather on any spot it isunoccupied clamour by night be tokensnervousnessif there is a disturbance in the campthe general's authority is weak if thebanners and flags are shifted aboutsedition is afoot if the officers areangry it means the men are wearywhen an army feeds its horses with grainand kills its cattle for food and whenthe men do not hang their cookie botsover the campfires showing that theywill not return to their tents you mayknow that they are determined to fightto the deaththe sign of men whispering together insmall knots or speaking in subdued tonespoints to disaffection amongst the rankand filetwo frequent rewards signify that theenemies at the end of his resourcestoo many punishments betray a conditionof dire distressto begin by bluster but afterwards totake fright at the enemy's numbers showsa supreme lack of intelligencewhen envoys are sent with compliments intheir mouths it is a sign that the enemywishes for a truceif the enemy's troops march up angrilyand remain facing ours for a long timewithout either joining battle or takingthemselves off again the situation isone that demands great vigilance andcircumspectionif our troops are no more in numbersthan the enemy that is amply sufficientit only means that no direct attack canbe madewhat we can do is simply to concentrateall our available strength keep a closewatch on the enemy and obtainreinforcementshe who exercises no forethought butmakes light of his opponents is sure tobe captured by themif soldiers are punished before theyhave grown attached to you they will notprove submissive and unless submissivethen will be practically uselessif when soldiers have become attached toyou punishments are not enforced theywill still be uselesstherefore soldiers must be treated inthe first instance with humanity butkept under control by means of irondisciplinethis is a certain road to victoryif in training soldiers commands arehabitually enforced the army will bewell disciplined if not its disciplinewill be badif a general shows confidence in his menbut always insists on his orders beingobeyed the gain will be mutualchapter 10 terrainsun tzu said we may distinguish sixkinds of terrain to with one accessiblegroundtwo entangling groundthreetemporizing groundfour narrow passesfive precipitous heightssix positions at a great distance fromthe enemyground which can be freely traversed byboth sides is called accessiblewith regard to ground of this nature bebefore the enemy in occupying the raisedand sunny spotsand carefully guard your line ofsupplies then you will be able to fightwith advantageground which can be abandoned but ishard to reoccupy is called entanglingfrom a position of this sort if theenemy is unprepared you may sally forthand defeat himbut if the enemy is prepared for yourcoming and you fail to defeat him thenreturn being impossible disasters willensuewhen the position is such that neitherside will gain by making the first moveit is called temporizing groundin a position of this sort even thoughthe enemy should offer us an attractivebait it will be advisable not to stirforth but rather to retreat thusenticing the enemy in his turn then whenpart of his army has come out we maydeliver our attack with advantagewith regard to narrow passes if you canoccupy them first let them be stronglygarrisoned and await the advent of theenemyshould the army forestall you inoccupying a pass do not go after him ifthe pass is fully garrisoned but only ifit is weakly garrisonedwith regard to precipitous heights ifyou are beforehand with your adversaryyou should occupy the raised and sunnyspots and there wait for him to come upif the enemy has occupied them beforeyou do not follow him but retreat andtry to entice him awayif you are situated at a great distancefrom the enemy and the strength of thetwo armies is equal it is not easy toprovoke a battle and fighting will be toyour disadvantagethese six other principles connectedwith earth the general who has attaineda responsible post must be careful tostudy themnow an army is exposed to six severalcalamities not arising from naturalcauses but from faults for which thegeneral is responsiblethese areone flighttwoinsubordination three collapsefourruinfive disorganizationsix routenow the conditions are being equal ifone force is hurled against another tentimes its size the result will be theflight of the formerwhen the common soldiers are too strongand their officers too weak the resultis insubordinationwhen the officers are too strong and thecommon soldiers too weak the result iscollapsewhen the higher officers are angry andinsubordinate and on meeting the enemygive battle on their own account from afeeling of resentment before thecommander-in-chief can tell whether orno he is in a position to fightthe result is ruinwhen the general is weak and withoutauthority when his orders are not clearand distinctwhen there are no fixed duties assignedto officers and men and the ranks areformed in a slovenly haphazard mannerthe result is utter disorganizationwhen a general unable to estimate theenemy's strength allows an inferiorforce to engage a larger one or hurls aweak detachment against a powerful oneand neglects to place picked soldiers inthe front rankthe result must be routethere are six ways of courting defeatwhich must be carefully noted by thegeneral who has attained a responsiblepostthe natural formation of the country isthe soldier's best ally but a power ofestimating the adversary of controllingthe forces of victory and of shrewdlycalculating difficulties dangers anddistances constitutes the test of agreat generalhe who knows these things and infighting puts his knowledge intopractice will win his battleshe who knows them not nor practices themwill surely be defeatedif fighting is sure to result in victorythen you must fighteven though the ruler forbid it iffighting will not result in victory thenyou must not fight even at the ruler'sbiddingthe general who advances withoutcoveting fame and retreats withoutfearing disgrace whose only thought isto protect his country and do goodservice for his sovereign is the jewelof the kingdomregard your soldiers as your childrenand they will follow you into thedeepest valleyslook upon them as your own beloved sonsand they will stand by you even untodeathif however you are indulgent but unableto make your authority felt kind-heartedbut unable to enforce your commandsand incapable moreover of quellingdisorder then your soldiers must belikened to spoil children they areuseless for any practical purposeif we know that our own men are in acondition to attack but are unaware thatthe enemy is not open to attack we havegone only halfway towards victoryif we know that the enemy is open toattack but are unaware that our own menare not in a condition to attackwe have only gone halfway towardsvictoryif we know that the enemy is open toattack and also know that our men are ina condition to attack but are unawarethat the nature of the ground makesfighting impractical we have still goneonly halfway towards victoryhence the experienced soldier once inmotion is never bewildered once he hasbroken camp he is never at a losshence the saying if you know the enemyand know yourself your victory will notstand in doubtif you know heaven and no earth you maymake your victory completechapter 11the nine situationssun tzu said the art of war recognizesnine varieties of groundone dispersive groundtwofacile groundthreecontentious groundfouropen groundfive ground of intersecting highwayssixserious groundsevendifficult groundeighthemmed in groundnine desperate groundwhen a chieftain is fighting in his ownterritory it is dispersive groundwhen he has penetrated into hostileterritory but to no great distance it isfacile groundground the possession of which importsgreat advantage to either side iscontentious groundground on which each side has liberty ofmovement is open groundground which forms the key to threecontiguous states so that he whooccupies it first has most of the empireat his command is a ground ofintersecting highwayswhen an army has penetrated into theheart of a hostile country leaving anumber of fortified cities in its rearit is serious groundmountain forests rugged steeps marshesand fence all country that is hard totraversethis is difficult groundground which is reached through narrowgorges and from which we can only retireby tortuous paths so that a small numberof the enemy would suffice to crush alarge body of our menthis is hemmed in groundground on which we can only be savedfrom destruction by fighting withoutdelay is desperate groundon dispersive ground therefore fight noton facile ground halt not on contentiousground attack knoton open ground do not try to block theenemy's wayon the ground of intersecting highwaysjoin hands with your allieson serious ground gather in plunder indifficult ground keep steadily on themarchon hemmed in ground resort to stratagenon desperate groundfightthose who are called skillful leaders ofold knew how to drive a wedge betweenthe enemies front and rear to preventcooperation between his large and smalldivisions to hinder the good troops fromrescuing the bad the officers fromrallying their menwhen the enemy's men were united theymanaged to keep them in disorderwhen it was to their advantage they madea forward move when otherwise they stopstillif asked how to cope with a great hostof the enemy in orderly array and on thepoint of marching to the attack i shouldsaybegin by seizing something which youropponent holds dearthen he will be amenable to your willrapidity is the essence of war takeadvantage of the enemy's unreadinessmake your way by unexpected roots andattack unguarded spotsthe following other principles to beobserved by an invading forcethe further you penetrate into a countrythe greater will be the solidarity ofyour troopsand thus the defenders will not prevailagainst youmake forays infertile country in orderto supply your army with foodcarefully study the well-being of yourmen and do not overtax themconcentrate your energy and horde yourstrengthkeep your army continually on the moveand devise unfathomable plansthrow your soldiers into positionswhence there is no escape and they willprefer death to flight if they will facedeath there is nothing they may notachieveofficers and men alike will put forwardtheir uttermost strengthsoldiers when in desperate straits losethe sense of fear if there is no placeof refuge they will stand firmif they are in hostile country they willshow a stubborn frontif there is no help for it they willfight hardthus without waiting to be marshaled thesoldiers will be constantly on the tvwithout waiting to be asked they will doyour will without restrictions they willbe faithful without giving orders theycan be trustedprohibit the taking of romans and doaway with superstitious doubts thenuntil death itself comes no calamityneed be fearedif our soldiers are not overburdenedwith money it is not because they have adistaste for richesif their lives are not unduly longit is not because they are disinclinedto longevityon the day they are ordered out tobattle your soldiers may weepthose sitting up bedewing their garmentsand those lying down letting the tearsrun down their cheeksbut let them once be brought to bay andthey will display the courage of a chewor a cuithe skillful tactician may be likened tothe schweijen now the srijan is a snakethat is found in the jiung mountainsstrike at its head and you will beattacked by its tail strike at its tailand you will be attacked by its headstrike at his middle and you will beattacked by the head and tail bothasked if an army can be made to imitatethe schweijen i should answer yesfor the men of wu and the men of ue areenemies yet if they are crossing a riverin the same boat and are caught by astorm they will come to each other'sassistance just as the left hand helpsthe righthence it is not enough to put one'strust in the tethering horses and theburying of chariot wheels in the groundthe principle on which to manage an armyis to set up one standard of couragewhich all must reachhow to make the best of both strong andweakthat is a question involving the properuse of groundthus the skillful general conducts hisarmy just as though he were leading asingle man willy-nilly by the hand it isthe business of a general to be quietand thus ensure secrecy upright and justand thus maintain orderhe must be able to mystify his officersand men by false reports and appearancesand thus keep them in total ignoranceby altering his arrangements andchanging his plans he keeps the enemywithout definite knowledgeby shifting his camp and takingsiquita's roots he prevents the enemyfrom anticipating his purposeat the critical moment the leader of anarmy acts like one who has climbed up aheight and then kicks away the ladderbehind himhe carries his men deep into hostileterritory before he shows his handhe burns his boats and breaks hiscooking potslike a shepherd driving a flock of sheephe drives his men this way and that andnothing knows whether he is goingto muster his host and bring it intodanger this may be termed the businessof the generalthe different measures suited to thenine varieties of ground the expediencyof aggressive or defensive tactics andthe fundamental laws of human naturethese are things that must mostcertainly be studiedwhen invading hostile territory thegeneral principle is that penetratingdeeply brings cohesionpenetrating but a short way meansdispersionwhen you leave your own country behindand take your army across neighborhoodterritory you find yourself on criticalgroundthere are means of communication on allfour sides the ground is one ofintersecting highwayswhen you penetrate deeply into a countryit is serious groundwhen you penetrate but a little way itis facile groundwhen you have your enemy's strongholdson your rear and narrow passes in frontit is hemmed in groundwhen there is no place of refuge at allit is desperate groundtherefore on dispersive ground i wouldinspire my men with unity of purposeon facile ground i would see that thereis close connection between all parts ofmy armyon contentious ground i would hurry upmy rearon open ground i would keep a vigilanteye on my defenses on ground ofintersecting highways i wouldconsolidate my alliancesserious ground i would try to ensure acontinuous stream of supplieson difficult ground i would keep pushingon along the roadon hemmed in ground i would block anyway of retreaton desperate ground i would proclaim tomy soldiers the hopelessness of savingtheir livesfor it is the soldier's disposition tooffer an obstinate resistance whensurrounded to fight hard when he cannothelp himself and to obey promptly whenhe has fallen into dangerwe cannot enter into alliance with theneighboring princes until we areacquainted with their designswe are not fit to lead an army on themarch unless we are familiar with theface of the countryits mountains and forests its pitfallsand precipices its marshes and swampswe shall be unable to turn naturaladvantages to account unless we make useof local guidesto be ignored of any one of thefollowing four or five principles doesnot befit a war-like princewhen a warlike prince attacks a powerfulstate his generalship shows itself inpreventing the concentration of theenemy's forceshe overalls his opponents and theirallies are prevented from joiningagainst himhence he does not strive to allowhimself with all and sundry nor does hefoster the power of other stateshe carries out his own secret designskeeping his antagonists in awethus he is able to capture their citiesand overthrow their kingdomsbestow rewards without regard to ruleissue orders without regard to previousarrangements and you will be able tohandle a whole army as though you had todo it with but a single manconfront your soldiers with the deeditselfnever let them know your designwhen the outlook is bright bring itbefore their eyes but tell them nothingwhen the situation is gloomyplace your army in deadly peril and itwill surviveplunge it into desperate straits and itwill come off in safetyfor it is precisely when a force hasfallen into harm's way that it iscapable of striking a blow for victorysuccess in warfare is gained bycarefully accommodating ourselves to theenemy's purposeby persistently hanging on to theenemy's flank we shall succeed in thelong run in killing thecommander-in-chiefthis is called ability to accomplish athing by sheer cunningon the day that you take up your commandblock the frontier passes destroy theofficial tallies and stop the passage ofall emissariesstone in the council chamber so that youmay control the situationif the enemy leaves the door open youmust rush infor stall your opponent by seizing whathe holds dear and subtly contrived totime his arrival on the groundwalk in the path defined by rule andaccommodate yourselves to the enemyuntil you can fight a decisive battleat first then exhibit the coinness of amaiden until the enemy gives you anopeningafterwards emulate the rapidity of arunning hair and it will be too late forthe enemy to oppose youchapter 12the attack by firesun tzu said there are five ways ofattacking with firethe first is to burn the soldiers intheir campthe second is to burn stallsthe third is to burn baggage trains thefourth is to burn arsenals and magazinesthe fifth is to hurl dropping fireamongst the enemyin order to carry out an attack we musthave means availablethe material for raising fire shouldalways be kept in readinessthere is a proper season for makingattacks with fire and special days forstarting a conflagrationthe proper season is when the weather isvery drythe special days are those when the moonis in the constellations of the sievethe wall the wing or the crossbar forthese four are all days of rising windin attacking with fire one should beprepared to meet five possibledevelopmentswhen fire breaks out inside the enemy'scamp respond at once with an attack forwithoutif there is an outbreak of fire but theenemy's soldiers remain quiet bide yourtime and do not attackwhen the force of the flames has reachedits height follow up with an attack ifthat is practicable if not stay whereyou areif it is possible to make an assaultwith fire from without do not wait forit to break out within but deliver yourattack at a favorable momentwhen you start a fire beat a windward ofit do not attack from the leewarda wind that rises in the daytime lastslong but the night breeze soon fallsin every army the five developmentsconnected with fire must be known themovements of the stars calculated and awatch kept for the proper dayshence those who use fire as an aid tothe attack show intelligence those whouse water as an aid to the attack gainan accession of strengthby means of water an enemy may beintercepted but not robbed of all hisbelongingsunhappy is the fate of one who tries towin his battles and succeed in hisattacks without cultivating the spiritof enterprisefor the result is a waste of time andgeneral stagnationhence the same the enlightened rulerlays his plans well the good generalcultivates his resourcesmove not until you see an advantage usenot your troops unless there issomething to be gainedfight not unless the position iscriticalno ruler should put troops into thefield merely to gratify his own spleenno general should fight a battle simplyout of peakif it is to your advantage make aforward moveif not stay where you areanger may in time change to gladnessvexation may be succeeded by contentbut a kingdom that has once beendestroyedcan never come back again into being norcan the dead ever be brought back tolifehence the enlightened ruler is heedfuland the good general full of cautionthis is the way to keep a country atpeace and an army intactchapter 13 the use of spiessun tzu saidraising a host of a hundred thousand menand marching them great distancesentails heavy loss on the people and adrain on the resources of the statethe daily expenditure will amount to athousand ounces of silver there will becommotion at home and abroad and menwill drop down exhausted on the highwaysas many as seven hundred thousandfamilies will be impeded in their laborhostile armies may face each other foryears striving for the victory which isdecided in a single daythis being so to remain in ignorance ofthe enemy's condition simply because onegrudges the outlay of a hundred ouncesof silver in honors and emoluments isthe height of inhumanityone who acts thus is no leader of menno present help to his sovereign nomaster of victorythus what enables the wise sovereign andthe good general to strike and conquerand achieve things beyond the reach ofordinary men is for knowledgenow this foreknowledge cannot beelicited from spirits it cannot beobtained inductively from experience norby any deductive calculationknowledge of the enemy's dispositionscan only be obtained from other menhence the use of spies of whom there arefive classesone local spiestwo inward spiesthree converted spiesfourdoomed spiesfive surviving spieswhen these five kinds of spy are all atwork none can discover the secret systemthis is called divine manipulation ofthe threadsit is the sovereign's most preciousfacultyhaving local spies means employing theservices of the inhabitants of adistricthaving inward spies making use ofofficials of the enemyhaving converted spies getting hold ofthe enemy's spies and using them for ourown purposeshaving doomed spies doing certain thingsopenly for purposes of deception andallowing our spies to know of them andreport them to the enemysurviving spies finally are those whobring back news from the enemy's camphence it is that which none in the wholearmy are more intimate relations to bemaintained than with spiesnone should be more liberally rewardedin no other business should greatersecrecy be preservedspies cannot be usefully employedwithout a certain intuitive sagacitythey cannot be properly managed withoutbenevolence and straightforwardnesswithout subtle ingenuity of mind onecannot make certain of the truth oftheir reportsbe subtle be subtle and use your spiesfor every kind of businessif a secret piece of news is divulged bya spy before the time is ripe he must beput to death together with the man towhom the secret was toldwhether the object be to crush an armyto storm a city or to assassinate anindividual it is always necessary tobegin by finding out the names of theattendants the aids decamp anddoorkeepers and centers of the generalin commandour spies must be commissioned toascertain thesethe enemy spies who have come to spy onus must be sought out tempted withbribes led away and comfortably housedthus they will become converted spiesand available for our serviceit is through the information brought bythe converted spy that we are able toacquire and employ local and inwardspiesit is owing to his information againthat we can cause the doomed spy tocarry false tidings to the enemylastly it is by his information that thesurviving spy can be used on appointedoccasionsthe end and aim of spying in all hisfive varieties is knowledge of the enemyand this knowledge can only be derivedin the first instancefrom the converted spyhence it is essential that the convertedspy be treated with the utmostliberalityof old the rise of the yin dynasty wasdue to ai chi who had served under thehisya likewise the rise of the chodynasty was due to luya who had servedunder the yinhence it is only the enlightened rulerand the wise general who will use thehighest intelligence of the army forpurposes of spying and thereby theyachieve great resultsspies are a most important element inwater because on them depends an army'sability to moveyou